Atualmente, o mundo se volta completamente para um tema extremamente urgente: o aquecimento global. Ao longo dos anos, o assunto foi disseminado através de cientistas, pesquisadores e ativistas, sobre o findar dos recursos naturais do planeta, aquecimento global e de como a humanidade precisa reconsiderar o modo de vida, para que desta forma, haja a sobrevivência da raça humana.
Nomes como Greta Thunberg, ativista de apenas 16 anos, trouxeram novamente o tema à pauta da sociedade mundial, mas agora com um tom mais alarmado. Muitos aderem ao seu grito por mudanças, porém, muitos a consideram como alguém que só quer “sentido para sua vida monótona”.
Por esses e outros motivos é que o jornal Milénio Stadium conversou com o Dr. Nathan Gillett – Scientist Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Environment Climate Change Canada, para que pudesse esclarecer, de forma técnica, alguns pontos sobre essa questão tão latente nos dias de hoje. Além disso, ele aborda especificamente sobre o Canadá, a condição que o planeta se encontra e suas consequências.
Milénio Stadium: What are the consequences for Canada in regards to climate change?
Nathan Gillett: Canada is experiencing the consequences of climate change, which are expected to intensify in the future.
MS: What has changed in Canada today, compared to the past?
NG: Past warming in Canada is on average, about double the magnitude of global warming. Northern Canada has warmed and is expected to continue to warm at more than double the global rate. The effects of widespread warming are evident in many parts of Canada and include more extreme heat, less extreme cold, longer growing seasons, shorter snow and ice cover seasons, earlier spring peak streamflow, thinning glaciers, thawing permafrost, and rising sea levels. Precipitation has increased in many parts of Canada, and there has been a shift toward less snowfall and more rainfall. Furthermore, oceans surrounding Canada have warmed, become more acidic, and less oxygenated, consistent with observed global ocean changes over the past century. Canadian areas of the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans have experienced longer and more widespread sea-ice-free conditions.
MS: Why is global warming happening? Is it possible to reverse this situation?
NG: The main driver of global warming is human emissions of greenhouse gases, of which carbon dioxide is the biggest contributor. Climate changes caused by carbon dioxide emissions are irreversible on human timescales. To stabilize the climate, emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases must be reduced to close to zero.
MS: What can we expect for the future in the medium and long term?
NG: The effects of widespread warming which are already evident in many parts of Canada are projected to intensify in the medium-term. The rate and magnitude of climate change in the long term depends on how greenhouse gas emissions change in the coming decades. If greenhouse gas emissions continue to grow, this will result is a rapid and large increase in warming, which will affect the Canadian climate. Scenarios with limited warming can occur if Canada and the rest of the world reduce carbon emissions to near zero early in the second half of the century and reduce emissions of other greenhouse gases substantially.
MS: What can the society do to contribute to the slowdown in global warming?
NG: Since the amount of global warming depends mainly on the total cumulative emissions of carbon dioxide, all actions which contribute to reducing current and future emissions by burning less fossil fuels or reducing emissions from forestry and agriculture, will reduce the rate of global warming.